Is Costa Rica Really the Happiest Nation on Earth?

Perhaps. But perhaps not. Nicholas Kristof‘s recent Times Op-Ed set out to explain why Costa Rica is “the happiest nation on earth.” This led my happiness coauthor Betsey Stevenson and me to explore further (which is why we are writing this post together). Kristof claims that:

There are several ways of measuring happiness in countries, all inexact, but this pearl of Central America does stunningly well by whatever system is used. For example, the World Database of Happiness, compiled by a Dutch sociologist on the basis of answers to surveys by Gallup and others, lists Costa Rica in the top spot out of 148 nations.

That’s because Costa Ricans, asked to rate their own happiness on a 10-point scale, average 8.5. Denmark is next at 8.3, the United States ranks 20th at 7.4, and Togo and Tanzania bring up the caboose at 2.6.

The ultimate source of these data is the Gallup World Poll, which we’ve analyzed in our previous research. It’s worth remembering that there are several measures of well-being in the Gallup data. The numbers Kristof cites come from responses to the question: “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? Use a 0 to 10 scale, where 0 is dissatisfied and 10 is satisfied.”

It’s probably worth being clear that what he’s measuring is life satisfaction, which may be very different from the point he’s making, which is about happiness. In fact, none of the major cross-national studies have ever measured the happiness of Costa Ricans. But they have measured some aspects of their subjective well-being.

More to the point, the well-being question that the Gallup folks tend to emphasize comes from the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, which asks: “Please imagine a ladder with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you, and the bottom of the ladder represents the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time, assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it? Which step comes closest to the way you feel?”

On this measure, there’s nothing particularly notable about Costa Rica. She comes in equal 19th in the well-being tables — equal with Panama and Iceland, and just above Mexico.

As the chart below shows, typically these two measures are highly correlated. What is particularly striking is that Latin American countries (shown in red) tend to do a lot better on the question that Kristof emphasizes, rather than on the question the Gallup folks emphasize.


We can’t explain these differences, and we don’t even have a strong theory as to which is the better measure. Before we can declare Costa Rica the winner in the happiness stakes, we need further evidence.

One way to think about whether this is a robust finding is to look to other measures. Kristof tries this, reporting on two others:

Scholars also calculate happiness by determining “happy life years.” This figure results from merging average self-reported happiness, as above, with life expectancy. Using this system, Costa Rica again easily tops the list.

A third approach is the “happy planet index,” devised by the New Economics Foundation, a liberal think tank. This combines happiness and longevity but adjusts for environmental impact — such as the carbon that countries spew.

Here again, Costa Rica wins the day, for achieving contentment and longevity in an environmentally sustainable way.

Unfortunately these are not actually independent alternatives; they are simply the same life satisfaction number, but with extra adjustments made. Had they made these adjustments to the Cantril Ladder score instead, the conclusions would be far less favorable for Costa Rica than the numbers Kristof cites.

To know that a finding is robust, we would like to see similar results in another survey. So we dug a bit further to see what we could learn about Costa Rica. There are a few other major cross-national data sets measuring happiness, but unfortunately Costa Rica never features in the World Values Survey, the International Social Survey Programme, the Pew Global Attitudes Project, or our own database of historical happiness studies. At this point, it’s tempting to conclude that the most distinctive thing about happiness in Costa Rica is simply how few surveys have actually measured the happiness of Costa Ricans.

That said, there’s one useful source: The LatinBarometer measures life satisfaction in 18 Latin American countries. Typically, Costa Rica ranks in the top handful of Latin American countries. In 2006 — the latest year for which data are freely available — Costa Rica was the 4th most satisfied out of these 18 nations, behind Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and Panama. In earlier years, it has been a bit higher — and it’s typically near the top — among Latin American nations. This is consistent with Gallup’s measurements using the Cantril Scale, which puts Costa Rica (along with Panama and Venezuela) atop the Latin American well-being tables.

While Costa Rica ranks near the top in the LatinBarometer, Latin American countries rarely rank in the top handful in the big international studies — except on the life-satisfaction question. Latin America is remarkably happy given its poverty, but it is rarely found to be as happy as the rich OECD countries (and particularly the Nordic nations) which are always near the top of the table, no matter what the specifics of the question asked.

Kristof may be right that there is something useful to learn from the relative success of Costa Rica. But let’s not lose sight of the fact that economic development is overwhelmingly the strongest explanator of which countries top the happiness tables.

(This post was written jointly with Betsey Stevenson.)

Eileen Wyatt

Has anyone done a regression against dominant religions in the various countries?

Latin America is reputedly dominant Catholic, and my fairly recent memory of the Catholic Church is that there is strong social pressure to declare oneself happy with one's lot in life. If internalized -- as religious beliefs are supposed to be -- that would lead to high satisfaction self-reports on Kristof's question, but not on Gallup's question (as the doctrinally correct answer for that should be that a person isn't living as pure and good a life as he or she ideally should be).


This post misses the point. let's say costa rica isn't #1, maybe its only in top 5 or ten. the point is, WHY? and, why is the USA so much lower. how are people investing their time for a better life, and what can we learn? let's not argue decimal points at the cost of real change.


19th among 148 nations (top 15%) is not notable???

On this measure, there's nothing particularly notable about Costa Rica. She comes in equal 19th in the well-being tables - equal with Panama and Iceland, and just above Mexico.


Kristof's conclusion seems to be that if one moves to Costa Rica, one will become more happy.

It seems a robust regression is required to make this statement. To follow up on comment #1, I imagine more religious people are happier, wealthier people are happier, etc.

What information is needed to isolate the country specific happiness effects, and does Costa Rica still make the top of the list if controlling for variables? In short, will I be more happy if I move to Costa Rica?


The Cantril Ladder score does not seem as good a gauge of personal happiness as the satisfaction survey. By asking people to estimate where their lives rank relative to all possible lives for them, it invites people to compare and rank their lives against their perceptions of the lives--and particularly the material well being--of others. It's true that the question used in the Cantril survey does not explicitly mention money, but for most people, it is the most obvious measurement for defining "best possible life." Yet a person may be completely content with his or her station in life (happy), and simultaneously assume that others--particularly those with more money and luxuries--live better lives. Kristof, by citing the satisfaction surveys, seems to be getting at a more subjective sense of happiness--one that permits those who are so inclined to measure their own happiness relative to how happy they believe others to be, but that does not compel them to do so.


Garvit Sah

The question that needs answer is whether this happiness is a result of living in a particular country - that whether person moving to Costa Rica from another country become happier and vice versa a person moving out of Costa Rica become unhappier? It seems more plausible that the general feeling of happiness is more of a people trait being a result of upbringing and culture.


I wasn't happier in Costa Rica. Beautiful country, but until its young males discover a little something called "feminism," count me back in the good old U.S. of A.
Also, holy traffic, batman!


Maybe the only people that responded were retired Americans who moved to Costa Rica.

Mark S.

I can think of several factors that could point to Costa Rica as having an advantage.

Costa Rica
-has a highest education level in Central & South America.
-is near the top in terms of GDP per capita among spanish speaking countries (Spain, Puerto Rico and Argentina are much higher, others are close).
-has the lowest power distance index of any latin country (this is a huge factor, the happiest people, Scandinavians have the lowest PDI worldwide)
-has no military (not sure if this means anything but no military suggests a lot less machismo in every day life).
-has a stable weather climate.
-has a surprisingly homogeneous population.
-has year round sun and warm weather but enough water precip to avoid the droughts its neighbors suffer through.
-has a lower income differential - more like European than Central American countries.

This list could go on forever, it would be surprising if Costa Rica was not near the top of many happiness lists.



The most miserable years of my life were wasted in South America, and I'm 100% sure that people there aren't as happy as they proclaim to be.

This line of research is simply ridiculous: it takes conformism as the same as happiness, among other major problems. BTW, is there one universally accepted scientific definition of happiness?

"Oh Pangloss, cried Candide, you have no notion of these abominations! I'm through, I must give up your optimism after all. What's optimism? said Cacambo. Alas, said Candide, it is a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell"

Indeed, Voltaire knew better,


This led my happiness coauthor Betsey Stevenson and ME to explore further

Eileen Wyatt

Mark S. (#9) is at least proposing objective measures for quality of life. I remain puzzled that I seem to be the only person who questions whether self-reports on putative aspects of happiness measure actual happiness versus measuring social pressure to claim to be happy. In the social sciences, self-reports are usually viewed with skepticism due to the likelihood of social acceptability bias.

Mark S.

#12 Agreed. Especially since Argentina ranks high in some studies. Yet Argentina has the world's highest per capita ratio of psychoanalysts and very nearly the highest ratio of plastic surgery (after Brazil). People who are trying to fix themselves inside and out cannot possibly be on a happiness list (or can they ?!?).


I am not sure that happiness is the same thing as believing you have the best life you could possibly have.

It would seem that when you ask someone to think about the best (and worst) life they could possibly have, nearly everybody will be able to imagine a better or worse situation, a higher or lower rung. So you'd expect some reversion to the mean, which might explain the big clump around 5 on the scatterplot on the Cantril scale. Add that to cognitive biases towards overconfidence, and you might also expect some crowding above average, but below the very top rungs--the 6-8 range. However, all of that does not mean the person on rung 5 or 8 is not content. And if you are content with your situation, how can I say you are not as happy as somebody striving more for the next rung?

So you are comparing self-assessment according to whether a person thinks things can get better or worse (and they nearly always can) versus whether a person is satisfied or content. The latter sounds like a better measure of happiness to this biased observer.



Eileen, I think you make a good point, except that you associate this bias too much with the Catholic Church. It betrays your own bias. Wouldn't Buddhists feel as much or more pressure to claim satisfaction and contentment?


It's obvious Shay didn't live in Costa Rica. San Jose is NOT Costa Rica !
Many gringos cant stand to be more than 15 minutes from a mall or BK diner, hence the traffic comment.

Pura Vida ! is a way of life. It is calm and carefree. Definitely not for type A nutjobs from the states.

I've been around a bit and can honestly say the Ticos are the most content with life.
Number 2 ?
Colombians, believe it or not.
Chile is right up there too.

Those are the only 3 places i would live in the west.
I live in CR, up toward Nicaragua.

P.S the dork that wrote the original article is jealous !


"This led my happiness coauthor Betsey Stevenson and I to explore..."

Shouldn't this be:

"This led my happiness coauthor Betsey Stevenson and _me_ to explore..." ?

Seems to be the most common grammatical error these days.

N. Normal

I'm sorry, but these happiness indexes are such a load of cobblers.
As an experienced backpack traveler and ex-merchant seaman, I explored 30 countries around the world, and one of the things I was always interested in was the spirit of people. How much laughing, how much glowing with happiness, or how stressed or pinched are the faces?

The results of my survey? Practically the opposite of these surveys I generally found that the people in the poorest countries were happier. Denmark the happiest of all? Ridiculous! Of the countries I came to know, I ranked Uganda and Burma and the top - both listed as the ten poorest in the world when I visited. Denmark, where my wife's family is from? Frosty, griping, judgmental, perfectionistic...although quite likely to report themselves as happiest in the world.
Uganda? I was amongst the poor, often no shoes. Simple diets with little variation.
I saw more people laughing so hard that they couldn't stand up in one month than I've seen in America in the rest of my life. People smiling, telling stories, laughing, mirthful.
How would they rank their happiness? How would they know that they're five times happier than Danes, or ten times happier than Americans? Americans are so angry. Danes, sourasses.
My theory is that while Americans and Danes spend much of their lives enslaved to maintaining and defending their enormous mountains of material goods, people who have nothing in comparison don't have to worry about losing it and can spend much more time having fun playing and loving with their families, and socializing around town. Me? My dishwasher, my truck, my tractor, my daughter's car, my HP printer, this laptop, my state government and my healthcare system are all malfunctioning RIGHT NOW! Aaaaagh!


Ben Ticehurst

Mark (12),

Philosopher Caroline West (Sydney Uni) asserts that many people who self-report in happiness studies are actually answering the question -

"do you think that you should be happy" or

"do you think that most people would regard you as a successful person?" rather than:

"are you happy?"

This relates to your scoial acceptability concern.

She also beleives the word happiness shoul dbe banned because it means about 8 separate things and thereofre causes confusion is research.


How can a peraon write "This led my happiness coauthor Betsey Stevenson and I to explore ..." and why would anyone want to read anything that followed such bad grammar?